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Types of Land zone and its benefits

LAND ZONE & USES

We cannot do any kind of building in any area. Use of land depends upon the land use zone decided by planning authority bylaws. Here are few sample uses in respective zone. Uses given here are to get rough idea of permissible use. These uses may change time to time as per authority policy. Also any use mentioned here have certain conditions for area, no of user, height, premises etc. 

PURELY RESIDENTIAL ZONE – R1 

R1 zone is residential zone with road below 12. (Below 9 m in congested area) R1 zone purely residential zone, but up to certain extent small committed / medical uses are permissible in R 1zone.

R1 & R2 zone are not separately shown in development plan, it is identified by access road width on site or in development plan. 

Following are uses permissible in residential zones 

  1. Any residential building or bungalow.
  2. Poly clinic laboratory, hospital up to 20 bed
  3. Hostel, old age homes
  4. House hold occupation(up to 1 hp electric load )
  5. Small professional offices (up to 50 sqm each)
  6. Small community halls, welfare centre, gymnasia(up to 100 sqm )
  7. Religious buildings
  8. Public libraries
  9. Club houses, parks and playgrounds (not being used for business purpose)
  10. Private coaching classes mess
  11. Electric industry (of assembly type up to up to 100 sqm)
  12. Convenience shops not more than 10 sqm
  13. Information technology establishment (ITE)
  14. Flour mill and wet / dry masala grinding, book binding (conditional)
  15. Burial grounds, cremation grounds and essential public utilities
  16. Raisin production
  17. Public conveniences.
  18. Agricultural, horticultural and allied uses (except agro-based industries).

 RESIDENTIAL ZONE R-2 

R2 zone is residential zone with road below with 12 m & above, access road (9 m in congested area) almost all uses are permissible in R2 zone eg. Residential, commercial, hospital, institute etc. 

Following are uses permissible in residential zones 

  1. All uses permitted in R1 zone
  2. Up to certain extent commercial use may be permitted
  3. Stores, shop or showroom  for the conduct of retail business
  4. Professional offices
  5. Frozen food lockers, fast food and vending stalls.
  6. Storage of furniture, household goods etc.
  7. Repairs to all household articles (excluding auto vehicle)
  8. Veterinary dispensaries and hospitals.
  9. Repair, cleaning shops
  10. Paper box manufacturing including paper cutting
  11. Commercial halls, exhibition halls
  12. Art galleries, aquariums;
  13. Restaurants, eating houses, cafeteria, ice – cream and milk bars.
  14. Showroom for distribution and sale of LPG
  15. Coal and firewood shops.
  16. Polyclinics on separate floors,
  17. Residential hotels, boarding and lodging
  18. Book depot, medicine and chemist shops.
  19. Business/ corporate office
  20. Colleges, secondary schools, trade or other similar schools.
  21. Parking of automobiles and other light vehicles on open plots even as a business.
  22. Vegetable, fruit, flour, fish or meat market place.
  23. General agriculture and horticulture
  24. Correctional and mental institutions,
  25. Service industries (as decided by planning authority)

COMMERCIAL ZONE 

Commercial zone is shown in blue color on development plan; on payment of certain premium to planning authority commercial zone can be converted in residential zone. 

  1. Any use permitted in residential zone without area and floor restrictions.
  2. Business offices and exchanges
  3. Public utility buildings
  4. Headquarters organizations.

INDUSTRIAL ZONE 

  1. Service industries
  2. Information technology establishments
  3. Storage buildings
  4. Drive-in -theaters, cinema or theaters
  5. The branches of scheduled banks.
  6. Any industry (subjected to fire officer permission)
  7. Banks, canteens, welfare center and such other common purposes considered necessary for the industrial workers, quarters of watchmen, caretakers or other essential staff required to be maintained on the premises (up to certain extent)
  8. On special permission by Commissioner, industrial zone can be converted in to residential zone.

AGRICULTURAL ZONE 

Following are uses permissible in agricultural zones

  1. Farm houses
  2. Store godowns, ware houses
  3. Agricultural uses
  4. Golf course and links, race tracks, and shooting ranges.
  5. Brick, tile or pottery manufacture
  6. Fish farming.
  7. Sand clay or gravel quarries.
  8. Storage and drying of fertilizer
  9. Public utility establishments such as electric sub-stations
  10. Swimming ‘pools
  11. Amusement park
  12. Mining and quarrying
  13. Research and development centers
  14. Ancillary service industries for agriculture produce marketing and management
  15. Bio-technology unit
  16. Solid waste management, land fill sites, bio-gas plants, power generation from waste.
  17. Highways amenities such as motels, way-side restaurants, service stations, service godowns, factory outlets, highway malls, hyper malls alongwith public conveniences like toilets

PUBLIC /SEMI PUBLIC ZONE 

  1. Pre-primary schools, primary schools, high schools, technical / trade schools, colleges, educational complex, hostels for students and essential staff quarters
  2. Hospital, sanatoria, dispensary, maternity homes, health centre, complex of such uses
  3. Training institutions
  4. Library, mangal karyalaya, gymnasium, gymkhana, water tanks, stadium, community hall, religious structures
  5. Commercial use (conditional)

Various Regulations in UDCPR 2020

UDCPR 2020 Chapter 2 is all about Development Permission and Commencement Certificate as per mentioned in the UDCPR 

 

This is Applicable to all Planning Authorities and Regional Plan Areas except the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Other Planning Authorities/Special Planning Authorities/ Development Authorities within the limits of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, MIDC, NAINA, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Hill Station Municipal Councils, Eco-sensitive/Eco-fragile region notified by MoEF & CC, and Lonavala Municipal Council in Maharashtra.

 

Rule No. 2.9 Completion Certificate

 

The owner through his Architect/licensed engineer/town planner/supervisor, as the case may be, who has supervised the construction, shall furnish a building completion certificate to the Authority in the form in Appendix - G. This certificate shall be accompanied by three sets of plans of the completed development, the certificate about the operation of the lift from consultant and certificate of structural stability, wherever necessary.

 

In case of special buildings, the Completion Certificate shall also be accompanied with the NOC from the Chief Fire Officer of the respective Authority or Director of Fire services, as the case may be.

 

Rule No. 2.10 Occupancy Certificate

 

The Authority after inspection of the work and after satisfying himself that there is no deviation from the sanctioned plans as mentioned in Regulation No.2.8.5, issues an occupancy certificate in the form in Appendix – H or refuses to sanction the occupancy certificate in Appendix - I within 21 days from the date of receipt of the said completion certificate, failing which the work shall be deemed to have been approved for occupation, provided the construction conforms to the sanctioned plans. One set of plans, certified by the Authority, shall be returned to the owner along with the occupancy certificate. Where the occupancy certificate is refused or rejected, the reasons for refusal or rejection shall be given in intimation of the rejection or the refusal The applicant may request for Deemed Occupancy Certificate, if eligible, as above. The Authority shall issue the Deemed Occupancy Certificate within 15 (fifteen) days of the application.

 

Rule No. 2.11 Part Occupancy Certificate

 

When requested by the holder of the development permission, the Authority may issue a part occupancy certificate for a building, or part thereof, before completion of the entire work as per development permission, provided sufficient precautionary measures are taken by the holder of the development permission to ensure public safety and health of the occupants and users of the said portion of the building. The part occupancy certificate shall be subject to the owners indemnifying the Authority in the form in Appendix 'J'.

 

Rule No. 2.12 Inspection

 

The Authority shall have the power to carry out inspection of the work under the provisions of the Act, at various stages to ascertain whether the work is proceeding as per the provisions of regulations and sanctioned plan.

 

Rule No. 2.13 Unsafe Buildings

 

All unsafe buildings shall be considered to constitute a danger to public safety and hygiene and sanitation and shall be restored by repairs or demolished or dealt with as otherwise directed by the Authority. The relevant provisions of the regulations/Act shall apply for the procedure of actions to be taken by the Authority for unsafe buildings.

 

Rule No. 2.14 Offences and Penalties

 

i)  Any person who contravenes any of the provisions of these regulations, any requirements

or obligations imposed on him by virtue of the Act or these regulations, shall :-

 

(a) Be guilty of an offence and upon conviction, shall be punished as stipulated in Section 52 of the Act.

 

(b) Be subject to further suitable actions including demolition of unauthorized works, as stipulated under Sections 53 and 54 of the Act.

 

(c) Where such person is a Licensed Engineer/Structural Engineer/Town Planner/Supervisor, be subject to suitable action against him which may include cancellation of license and debarring him from further practice/business for a period as may be decided by the Authority. Thereupon such Licensed Engineer/Structural Engineer/Town Planner/Supervisor shall be considered debarred for the respective district.

 

(d) Where such person is a registered Architect, be subject to action of the Council of Architecture as per the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972 based on the report of the Authority and debarring him from further practice/ business for a period as may be decided by the Authority.

 

ii) Any person who neglects any requirements or obligations imposed on him including the maintenance of fire protection services, appliances and lifts in working order or who interferes with or obstructs any person in the discharge of his duties shall be guilty of an offence as specified in Section 36 of the Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety Measures Act, 2006 and, upon conviction, shall be subject to penalties and other consequences spelt out in said Act.

 

Related Regulations to Rule No. 2- 

 

You can visit our other blog on Regulation 2 through the below-mentioned links:

 

Commencement of Work in UDCPR 2020

 

Grant or Refusal of Permission in UDCPR 2020

 

Procedure During Construction in UDCPR 2020

 

Discretionary Powers and Relaxations In Specific Cases in UDCPR 2020

 

Discretionary Powers Interpretation in UDCPR 2020

 

Procedure for Obtaining Development Permission, Building Permission, Commencement Certificate in UDCPR 2020

 

Permission from the Planning Authority is Mandatory in UDCPR 2020

 

Terminology used in Building bye laws

Whenever you see a town planning map or a blue print, you come across various terms like open space, amenity space. Here is details explanation in common man’s language for construction related building rules. 

FSI (Floor Space Index)

  1. In general language FSI means permissible built up area on any plot. It is calculated by dividing Built up area by Plot Area.
  2. FSI = built up area/Plot area.
  3. E.g. – If permissible FSI for a plot of 1000 Sqft. is 1.10, then we can construct 1100 Sqft. of built up area. (say 225 Sqft on 4 floors or 550SqFt on 2 floors)
  4. Ducts, Parking floor, basement, architectural treatment are not considered while calculating FSI.
  5. Depending upon planning authority by-laws, balcony, terrace, staircase, lift, lift machine room are deducted from FSI on payment of premium.

Check FSI in pune https://foot2feet.com/construction-calculator/pmc/fsi-in-pune/

 

Open Space

  1. Open space is the space left for recreational activities for the user of that plot. It remains part of the same land under ownership of society.
  2. Generally we have to leave 10% of total plot area for any building or layout permission.
  3. Depending upon by-laws smaller plots, gunthewari plots, N.A. plots do not require open space area.

 Amenity space

  1. Generally for plot above 1 acre require 15% amenity space.
  2. Amenity space is a space to be left for government for planning various public amenities like school, hospital library, fire stations, police chowki etc.
  3. This space is to be handed over to govt. and owner gets FSI as compensation for land. (In short there is only loss of space but no loss of FSI)
  4. N.A. plots and smaller plots do not require amenity space.

 Paid FSI (Fungible FSI)

  1. It is additional FSI on any plot after payment of premium amount to planning authority.
  2. This premium amount depends upon ready reckoner rate of same land.

 TDR (Transferable development rights)

  1. Due to planning authority reservations FSI of one land cannot be utilized entirely on same plot. Hence Government allow plot holder to sell or transfer FSI of his plot. This is called Transferable Development Rights. Buying TDR is like buying virtual land.
  2. Buyer of TDR can do extra construction on his land.
  3. One cannot load more TDR than permissible on that land. Maximum Permissible TDR on any plot depends upon Access Road, Land Zone etc…

Checkout The detail information about Transferable Development Rights (TDR) https://foot2feet.com/site/tdr_transferable_development_rights/

 

Road Widening

  1. Area of plot falling under proposed or existing road is called as road widening area.
  2. FSI of this area can be utilized on same plot or converted into TDR.

 Carpet area

  1. Before RERA Carpet area was considered as tile able area in property. It includes room floor area, Balcony area, terrace area, tile area at door jams etc…
  2. But After RERA (Real Estate Regulatory Act 2016) have modified carpet area concept a bit.
  3. According to RERA, carpet area include following things
  4. Room Area
  5. Internal wall area (wall between 2 rooms of same apartment)
  6. Dry balcony area (separately mentioned)
  7. Enclosed Balcony area (separately shown if any)
  8. Terrace area (separately mentioned) the only difference between RERA carpet & old carpet is that internal wall area is added in RERA carpet.

 Built up Area

  1. Built up area term is most commonly used term in constriction industry. & at same time it has various meaning at various situations. Hence it is necessary to clarify area included or excluded while discussing with built up area. eg –
  2. For government approvals it is the area covered by a building on all floors including cantilevered portion, mezzanine floors if any but excepting the areas excluded specifically from FSI.
  3. For buyer / user – It is usable construction area which includes parking, floor area, but excluding footing & foundation area.
  4. For contractor it is total construction area including parking, 50 % footing, water tank etc.., but excluding top terrace area.

 

Conveyance Deed

   Any construction consists of 2 most important factors first is b.up area & 2nd is land on which building is constructed. After completion of construction builder/developer was supposed to transfer land in name of society (or association of apartment).  This transfer process is called as conveyance deed. A survey shows that in almost 80% society this process was not completed.

You can check the more information about conveyance deed here https://foot2feet.com/construction-services/legal-services/conveyance-deed/

 

 

Building Control Line

It is the line up to which we can build construction according to planning authority / or any government authority.

Non Agriculture (NA)

  1. Any land (except land in Gaothan area) is by default agriculture land in India. It is assumed as non-agriculture land only and only after taking NA permission (Non Agricultural use permission) from collector.
  2. A copy of land conversion is called as NA order.
  3. For NA land zone plays important role. (Agriculture, industrial , residential)
  4. Depend upon zone NA can be done. Eg – Industrial NA, farmhouse NA, residential NA, commercial NA.
  5. NA and R-zone are commonly misunderstood.
  6. In simple words, NA is procedure to change tax on any land due to change in use of land.
  7. NA land not necessary to be residential land all time, and similarly residential land not necessarily to be NA land.
  8. A land which is in residential zone, but its use according to collector/revenue department is agriculture, then the land is not NA. (but this land can be converted into NA after completing NA procedure.)

You can Check more information about Non Agriculture here – https://foot2feet.com/site/na_order_land_conversion/

 

Side Margin

Side margin is distance to be kept from plot boundary to building line as per Regulations. Calculate how much side margin you need to keep for your building.

https://foot2feet.com/construction-calculator/pmc/side-margin-calculator/

 

Ready Reckoner Rate

Government rates of land, property is called as ready reckoner rate. These rates are published and regulated by the respective state government. Find Out Ready Reckoner Rates in Pune here – http://www.igrmaharashtra.gov.in/eASR/frmMap.aspx

R zone (residential)

It is a zone demarcated as residential area in development plan mostly it shown in yellow color any agriculture land cannot converted in residential zone it agriculture / vanikaran land must pass certain criteria for zone conversion. you can use our site feasibility service to know  whether your land can be converted or not.

You can check all Types of Land zone

https://foot2feet.com/blog/types-of-land-zone-its-benefits/

 

Residential zones – R1 / R2

  1. Residential Zone R1 includes Residential plots abutting on roads below 9 m. in congested area and below 12 m. width in outside congested area
  2. Residential Zone R2 includes Residential plots abutting on road having existing or proposed width 9 m. and above in congested area and 12 m. and above in outside congested area

A 9 step Guide for Construction of any Building

Step by step from laying the first brick to taking possession of your dream building construction

  • Are you looking to build your home?
  • Are you a businessman planning to build your own office building?
  • Are you an industrialist thinking of expanding your factory unit?

Constructing a new home or any building is a tedious, can be a dream come true for most, but at the same time, it’s a tedious process that requires 360-degree involvement, hectic negotiations and close interaction with multiple vendors and service providers. But it better be good, otherwise months of effort and your heavy investment – sometimes a whole life’s savings – can go waste, or not give you the full outcome; complete satisfaction and peace of mind that you deserve. 

“Whatever we build today, ends up building our tomorrow”

Pradeep, a friend who was planning to have his home constructed once came to me for advice.  He asked me if I can help him understand the process. Since I’ve dabbled in the industry for over a decade, so that he does not end up wasting his precious time, money, resources and energy. The process that I outlined for my friend is the one I am going to share with you in this document – drawn-up entirely from the owner’s perspective. It’s a distillation of my 10 years of experience in the industry with 250 projects, ranging from 1500 sq.ft. to 8,50,000 sq.ft. in area. 

Armed with this nine-step roadmap, you can seize complete control of the contraction process –  – how to build a house; an office building; a hospital; an industrial shed; execute a big township project or get a school, college or a resort project executed, on-time and within budget, without a glitch. If you carefully follow all these nine steps, I can guarantee you will be able to have your construction project completed in a hassle-free manner, without any time or cost overruns.  

  1. Land Feasibility Check
  2. Appointment of Architect
  3. Budget Planning
  4. Plan Finalization
  5. Legal Clearances
  6. Appointment of a Contractor
  7. Site Supervision
  8. Selection of Quality Material
  9. Don’t Miss Little Things

1. Check Land Feasibility

“Feasibility study means a careful evaluation of the viability of a construction project to analyze various opportunities and restrictions beyond our set of assumptions.”

               In simple language, what it means is that before you start planning the construction of your house or office on a piece of land, always check the feasibility of the project. This includes following two steps: 

a. Zone analysis –  

A piece of land falls in a particular zone, and each zone has pre-specified uses. (E.g. you cannot build a commercial property in a residential zone.  Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) is another is another important consideration. FSI reveals how much construction you are allowed to do on your allotted land. You can use Foot2feet.com’s unique, free-to-use FSI calculator to find this out.  (Click here). Last but not the least; zone analysis would also cover a consideration of access road’s width, road widening areas, allowable building height etc.  

b. Site Analysis – 

This would include a study of the site topography; water course; trees; prevailing climate conditions; direction of the sun; existing structures; bore well/well locations; the presence or absence of any parks in the  vicinity etc. All these are crucial elements of a Vibrant Design that your architect will later use to develop a plan for your dream house/office/factory premises.

Foot2Feet can help you to connect with a professional, who excels at preparing this report for you. 

2. Appointment of an Architect(s)

“Architects are magicians who add life to a building.”

If your building is your dream, then the architect is the person who will bring this dream to reality oops, realty

He plays a crucial role in helping you decide major aspects, such as space utilization; material selection and optimization of its use; cost management; exterior look and feel; interior functionality; future expansion scope; electrical fittings and plumbing design etc.

An architect must be appointed right in the beginning of a project and his role ends with project completion. Hence be wise in the selection of an architect for your dream project. Use the following criteria in the selection of the right architect – 

  1. Experience – An experienced architect will be good at problem-solving and make your decision-making easier.
  2. Timely Service – Timely delivery of drawings will make a huge difference to the construction speed.
  3. Aesthetic Sense – A competent architect will ensure that the building looks good and is also technically-sound.
  4. Execution Teams – His contacts with contractors, masons and other consultants will ensure that you get help from the right person for the right tasks and at the right time.

On the flip side, if you are on a tight budget, you could also consider awarding your project to a talented, young architect as he will be more flexible in his approach and his services will cost you considerably less.   

Get free quotations from architects registered on Foot2feet. 

3. Budget Planning

How big is your building project likely to be?

Check out the cost of construction in your particular area. Contractor, architect and your experienced friends may help you estimate the trending cost in your area. For instance, in a smaller city like Latur or Nanded, it may cost only Rs 950 per square feet, while it may climb up to Rs 2500 per square feet in cities like Pune and Mumbai. Also factor into this estimate the cost of  

  1. Material used in the  construction
  2. Design details of your project
  3. Nature of soil, hard rock etc., which affects foundation cost
  4. The prevailing rates of material, such as steel, cement etc.
  5. Labor availability

After you arrive at an approximate cost of construction, multiply it by your proposed area of construction. Since building a home or undertaking any other construction project is a once-a-lifetime event in the life of an average Indian, determine how far you can go in terms of expanding your budget to match your dreams.

Remember the cost of basic structure (slab, brickwork, plaster) is quite  reasonable compared to the cost of finishing items, such as  doors, windows, hardware, sanitary items, electrical fittings, tiles, toilets, kitchen items, paint, furniture etc. 

One major mistake that I found most people make is that they start planning big thinking that big is better, even when it strains their budget. The truth of the matter however is that any construction is good if it fulfills your requirement in terms of space, stability, aesthetics, and comfort in days to come.  Sometimes the family size is small but they end up living in a palatial house, where they don’t get to see each other as often as they should.  Remember that a home project is capital-intensive; don’t make the mistake of locking up that capital in a construction that does not serve your real purpose. 

4. Planning Your Construction – Building Your Future

In the above section, we covered initial steps before starting your construction. Now it’s time to start planning the building.

  1. Draw up a detailed list of your requirement before meeting an architect. (Take help from your friends, family & architect on this)
  2. Be flexible with your list. It may change over time, as elements get added or subtracted from the list.

If required, make two lists of requirements. One for essentials such as kitchen, bed rooms, bathrooms etc., and the second for non-essential elements of your dream home. This will make it easier for your architect to find a perfect balance between your dream and your essential requirements.

When I sat down to pick up insights from my 20-completed project in 2019, I discovered that people who were clear with this kind of priority list received the best outcome from me and their homes closely matched their dream home concepts.

Secondly, when you seek layouts from your designer, insist on furniture layout. In their case, we could make optimum utilization of space, resources and the clients’ budgets. .

Third, after you freeze a plan, start with the exterior design (elevation design) of your building. A 3D view will give more clarity about what can be built. It also gives insights on what material to use. 

5. Legal Clearance 

One of my acquaintances built a two-storied building without getting any legal permission. Now that construction has become a major headache for him. After investing a huge amount of his saving in the project, he continues to fret and worry that the civic authority may come order to have it demolished, any day.  He can’t even mortgage his property, for loan purpose. 

I pray, this sould not be a case for any one again. Most people are misguided in their belief that they can start the construction process and have it regularized later by hook or crook. This is easier said than done. These days, under The Real Estate Regulatory Agency (RERA) norms & IGR Maharashtra rules (for property registration) enforcement is very prompt and effective and penalties severe. What may have appeared possible ten years ago is infeasible now.   

Here is easy guide for steps involved in obtaining legal clearance:

  1. Procure land ownership documents.
  2. Get approval from the building department in your area.
  3. Get Plinth checking done (when was the 1st slab or plinth constructed?)
  4. Obtain all No-Objection Certificates (NoCs) for drainage, water, fire etc.
  5. Obtain  Occupation Certificate (OC)

Remember, Occupation certificate (OC) is the only document which will prove that your construction is totally legal. No other certificate is as valid as the OC. I alway recommend to appoint liasoning architect to complete all thes tasks. 

 For more knowledge on building approvals, blue prints, refer foot2feet site. Here we have built many features for building rules, & getting building approvals.

6. Appointment of a Contractor (click Here)

A Contractor is key person in any construction. You can appoint one contractor or you can appoint multiple contractors and assign them various tasks.

Types of Contracts 

  1. Labour Contract: This would cover timely supply of labour for a reasonable cost. The contract will also bind the Owner/ site supervisor to provide all material required to the Labour Contractor for unobstructed construction work.
  2. Material Contract: Under this contractual obligation, the Contractor quotes a certain amount and himself deals with the labour and material cost. This can save huge time for the owner, provided he is willing to do regular quality checks.

Turnkey Contract: Under this arrangement, the Contractor deals with everything from labour, material to post-construction cleaning etc. The common adage is that after appointing a turnkey contractor, the owner has only one task left – turn in the key of the newly-constructed house! The common trend in cities like Pune, Mumbai, Nasik and Aurangabad is to have a material contract for basic construction structure (RCC, brickwork and plaster) and a separate labour contract; or  separate contracts for other items, such as  electrical, plumbing, window, doors, painting, water proofing, tile work etc.  This is to ensure that the owner saves time in basic structure and can procure  high quality input material in finishes.

7. Site Supervisor

A constant supervision of the construction work by an expert is a pre-requisite on the site. This person would be held responsible for various activities and on-site technical problem-solving.  You can appoint a supervisor for certain number of pre-mandated visits but if your project is big then appointing a full-time supervisor is always a better idea. 

Charges of site supervisor varies on the responsibilities, you assign to the incumbent. In Pune, it varies between Rs 10,000 to Rs 25,000 per month.  Responsibilities include routine checking of material quality; supervision of contractor’s  work; planning next-stage activities; making timely decisions based on  site situations; co-ordinating  drawings from various consultants; preparing bar charts; co-ordinating with vendors for material delivery etc. For bigger projects, project management consultants (PMC) are appointed. They often have bigger roles etched out for them.  Usually projects covering over 50,000 sq.ft. area are assigned to PMCs. Sometimes, smaller, quality and time-conscious project owners also seek the help of PMCs. 

8. Selection of Material 

In 2020, we renovated our home. It was built by my uncle in 1985. We altered windows, toilets, kitchen platform, tiles and introduced several, new trending elements to the basic structure. I was surprised to discover that even after 35 years of use, the basic material stood strong against the ravages of time. This is the kind of role material quality plays in construction work – it ensures the building’s longevity.

Society trends, user requirement, can all change with generations of use; but one thing that remains long time with building  is the material used in making of it.

While choosing construction materials bear in mind the following points: 

  • Material specification
  • Sustainability in terms of the local climate of your area
  • Aesthetic appeal
  • Durability
  • Can your contractor install it?
  • Warranty or guarantee & maintenance aspects

For footing, brickwork, RCC structure, electrical, plumbing and sanitary items, strength and durability must be double-checked. These are the aspects that cannot be changed, easily later, if the need arises. 

9. Don’t Miss Out on Little Things

All above steps is a outline of all important task a home owner , developer should do. Now here is a final one.  After completion, a few important aspects to be borne in mind: 

  • Spare material: Youmay need minor repair work in the long or short future. In such case materials, keep some spare material, such as bathroom tiles, other tiles, furniture laminates, exterior cladding etc., because you may not be able to get hold of the same batch later. At least stock two-to-five pieces in spare.
  • Tax clearance:  For use of land other than agriculture, a NA (Non Agriculture) tax is applicable, besides municipal tax. You need to pay both taxes to avoid legal action from authorities.
  • Completion letter: Obtain acompletion letter from your architect, contractor and from local municipal body, before moving in.
  • Record drawings: Get hold of a copy of ‘as built’ drawings of the architecture; structural drawings; electric layouts; plumbing layouts for future repair needs. These should be updated copies, reflecting all  on-site changes. This will help you in the execution of all -run expansion, maintenance or renovation plans. 

Lighting and Ventilation of Room as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

UDCPR 2020 Chapter 9 is all about the Requirements of Part of the Building as per mentioned in the UDCPR 

 

This is Applicable to all Planning Authorities and Regional Plan Areas except Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Other Planning Authorities/Special Planning Authorities/ Development Authorities within the limit of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, MIDC, NAINA, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Hill Station Municipal Councils, Eco-sensitive/Eco-fragile region notified by MoEF & CC and Lonavala Municipal Council, in Maharashtra.

 

Rule No. 9.20 Lighting and Ventilation of Room

 

9.20.1  Adequacy and manner of provision

 

i) The minimum aggregate area of opening of habitable rooms and kitchens excluding doors shall be not less than 1/10th of the floor area of the room.

 

ii) No portion of a room shall be assumed to be lighted, if it is more than 7.5 m. away from the opening assumed for light and ventilation, provided an additional depth of any room beyond 7.5 m. may be permitted subject to provision of proportionate increase in the area of the opening.

 

iii) A staircase shall be deemed to be adequately lighted and ventilated, if it has one or more openings and an area taken together measures not less than 1.0 sq.m. per landing on the external wall.

 

iv) An opening with a minimum area of 1.0 Sq.m. in a kitchen, and 0.30 sq.m. with one dimension of 0.30 m. for any bathroom, water closet or store shall be treated as adequate.

 

9.20.2  Ventilation Shaft

 

For ventilating the spaces for water closets & bathrooms, if not opening on front, side, rear & interior open spaces, these shall open on the ventilation shaft, the size of which shall not be less than the values given in the table below :-

 

Table No.9-C - Ventilation Shaft

Sr. NoHeight of Buildings in m.Cross-section of Ventilation shaft in Sq.m.Minimum one dimension of the shaft in m.
(1)(2)(3)(4)
1Upto 101.20.9
2Upto 122.41.2
3Upto 184.01.5
4Upto 245.41.8
5Upto 308.02.4
6Above 309.03.0

 

Note :-

 

a) For buildings above 30.0 m., a mechanical ventilation system shall be installed beside the provisions of the minimum ventilation shaft.

 

b) For fully air-conditioned residential/other buildings, the

 

9.20.3 Artificial Lightning and Mechanical Ventilation

 

Where lighting and ventilation requirements are not met through daylighting and natural ventilation, they shall be ensured through artificial lighting and ventilation in accordance with the provisions of Part 8, Building

 

Related Regulations to Rule No. 9

 

Habitable Rooms as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

 

Basements as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

 

Ramp as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

 

Balcony as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

 

Provision of Lift as Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020

 

Compound Wall and Other Requirements of Part of Building in UDCPR 2020